A micro-organism is an organism that is too small to be seen by the naked eye. Also called microbe, this category includes bacteria, viruses, protozoa, some fungi and some algae. Through the sourdough library project we have already identified more than 900 strains. For yeasts we have found the following Genus: Saccharomyces, Kazachstania, Wickerhamomyces, Metschnikowia, Torulaspora, Pichia and Lachancea. As Lactic Acid Bacteria we found; Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Weissella, Micrococcus, Streptococcus
The yeasts are mainly responsible for the production of gas to make the bread rise as well as the production of esters. These are small flavour components that will change from species to species. The LAB (lactic acid bacteria) are mainly responsible for the production of organic acids. The two major ones are lactic and acetic acids although they can produce some gas under certain conditions.
The picture shows a combination of a starch granule, gluten, yeast cell and a LAB in a sourdough.
Mixing is the combination and hydration of two or more ingredients until they're homogeneously dispersed throughout the dough. In bread, it also provides the energy necessary for gluten structure development, and incorporates oxygen for oxidation and yeast activity.